© Tobias Woelke 09.01.2018
Partizip I and Partizip II in German and its use as an adjective
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The participles are formed through verbs. In the German language there are two participles:
The participle I in German
The participle I, the so-called participle of the present that is formed through the infinitive of the verb.Examples:
Participle I (“Partizip I” in German): Kochend, laufend, weinend
The participle I is constructed with:
(infinitive of the verb) + “d”
Verb Participle 1
- singen singend
- laufen laufend
- kochen kochend
- Exception is the verb sein the participle here is seiend
The participle II in German
- The participle II, is the so-called participle of the past that can be used in the past perfect, plus-perfect, the passive. Examples of the past participle:
- Participle II (“Partizip II” in German): gekocht, geschlossen, verletzt
Both participles can be used as adjectives in the German language.
When can participles be used as adjectives in German?
We begin with the participle I:
Formation of the participle I in German
Article + participle I +declination of the adjective + Noun
Der bellende Hund
Das fahrende Auto
The participle I as an adjective is used to express that two events are happening at the same time in the present. Let’s see an example:
Der Hund geht in den Park und bellt.
Here two actions occur at the same time:
– On the one hand the dog goes to the park
-the second action: the dog barks
Now we convert this phrase into a phrase using participle 1 as an adjective:
Der Hund geht bellend in den Park
“The dog is barking at the park”. We realize that the participle 1 as an adjective is not declined because it does not go before the noun, it does not have function as an attribute.
Now we decline the participle I as an adjective, the rules of adjectival declension apply:
With definite article: Der bellende Hund geht in den Park
With an indefinite article: Ein bellender Hund geht in den Park
No article: Bellender Hund verhindert Einbruch (barking dog avoids a theft)
In theory the participle I can be used with all the verbs, but with some verbs its use sounds very strange as for example in the case of sein or modal verbs.
Participle II as an adjective in German:
The participle II as an adjective is used for a finished action or in the passive
How is the participle II formed as an adjective?
Die Suppe ist gekocht the soup is cooked
Since the participle does not go before the noun, it is not declined. In the following example, if:
Die gekochte Suppe the cooked soup
article + Participle II + declination of adjectives + Noun
Die geschlossene Tür
Der verletzte Mann
More examples of the use of the participle II as an adjective in the German language:
Das gewonnene Spiel the won game
Das gestohlene Geld the stolen money
Die verlassene Stadt the abandoned city
This has been all about the participle I and the participle II as an adjective in the German language. If you have any doubt, you can comment on the Post.