Difference um zu and damit
To explain this little grammatical theme, I try to use a language that everyone can understand.
You will find a short summary with a less detailed explanation at the end of the page
What is the difference between um zu and damit?
At first glance there is no difference between um zu and damit because both constructions belong to the so-called final sentences and express the purpose of an action and are asked with “Wozu” (for that) or “Zu welchem Zweck” (with what purpose?)
The difference between um zu and damit can be seen well in the next example:
Peter lernt Englisch, um in Kanada arbeiten zu können.
Why does Peter learn English? To be able to work in Canada
The subject is identical and is a so-called construction in Infinitive, belongs to the group of “subjektloser Nebensatz”, “subordinate phrases without subject”
Peter lernt Englisch, damit sein Chef ihn befördert
So that Peter learns English? For his boss to promote him to a better position.
Here the difference between um zu and damit is that the subject is not identical.
More examples to explain it:
Mein Vater braucht jeden Morgen eine Brille, um die Zeitung zu lesen.
My father needs glasses every morning to read the newspaper. Here the subject is identical
Peter muss jeden Tag das Zimmer aufräumen, damit seine Mutter nicht schimpft
Peter has to clean his room every day so that his mother does not get his attention.Subject is not identical.
* Damit can also be used when the subject is identical
Wir arbeiten sehr viel, damit wir uns ein Haus kaufen können
if we say:
Wir arbeiten sehr viel, um uns ein Haus zu kaufen
we express the same purpose. Stylistically it is better to use um zu instead of damit when the subject is identical.
* The modal verbs möchten, wollen and sollen are used to express a purpose, but can not be used in this type of construction with um zu and damit. Instead können is used as a possibility
Sabine studiert Informatik, damit sie als Informatikerin arbeiten kann.
Small final summary of the difference between um zu and damit:
-The use of damit is mandatory when the subject is not identical
Grammatical update and fixation 02.04.2017
The structure “um … zu” belongs to the so-called infinitive sentences and omits to mention the subject again. An example:
Peter studiert viel, um einen guten Job zu bekommen.
This has been everything, in case you have any doubt you can write a comment and I answer as soon as possible.